Saturday, December 6, 2008
Process plants designed and constructed to the ASME B31.3 code also rely on the standardization of the components used for piping systems and the method of process plant fabrication and construction.
There are numerous standards, many of which are interrelated, and they must be referred and adhered to by design engineers and manufacturers in the process industry. These standards cover the following:
Material—chemical composition, mechanical requirements, heat treatment, etc
Dimensions—general dimensions and tolerances
Fabrication codes—welding, threading
Standards covering the preceding were drawn up by the following major engineering bodies:
American Petroleum Institute (API)
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
American Water Works Association (AWWA)
American Welding Society (AWS)
Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS)
National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE)
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
Periodically, these standards are updated to bring them in line with the latest industry practices. Most of the standards have been in circulation for a number of years, and the changes are rarely dramatic; however, such changes must be incorporated into the design. It is essential that the latest revision is the final reference point.
American standards are not superior to other national standards, but they are the ones most commonly used in the process industry. They are based on a long track record with a very low failure rate, so there is a high degree of confidence in these publications. Always refer to the latest edition of the relevant standards, and if necessary, make sure your company’s library holds the most current version.
AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE:
API Spec 5B: Specification for Threading, Gauging and Thread Inspection of Casing, Tubing and Line Pipe Threads
API Spec 5L: Specification for Line Pipe,
API Spec 6A: Specification for Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment,
API Bull 6AF: Bulletin on Capabilities of API Flanges under Combinations of Load,
API TR 6AF1: Temperature Derating of API Flanges under Combination of Loading,
API TR 6AF2: Bulletin on Capabilities of API Integral Flanges under Combination of Loading
API Spec 6D: Specification for Pipeline Valves,
API Spec 6FA: Specification for Fire Test Valves,
ANSI/API Spec 6FB: Fire Test for End Connections,
API Spec 6FC: Fire Test for Valve with Automatic Backseats,
API Spec 6FD: Specification for Fire Test For Check Valves,
ANSI/API RP 574: Inspection Practices for Piping System Components,
ANSI/API Std 589: Fire Test for Evaluation of Valve Stem Packing,
ANSI/API RP 591: Use Acceptance of Refinery Valves,
API Std 594: Check Valves—Water and Wafer-Lug and Double Flanged Type
API Std 598: Valve Inspection and Testing,
API Std 599: Metal Plug Valves Flanged and Welding Ends,
API Std 600: Bolted Bonnet Steel Gate Valves for Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries,
API Std 602: Compact Steel Gate Valves Flanged Threaded Welding and Extended Body Ends,
API Std 603: Corrosion Resistant, Bolted Bonnet Gate Valves Flanged and Butt Welding Ends,
ANSI/API Std 607: Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter-Turn Valves,
API Std 608: Metal Ball Valves Flange Threaded and Welding Ends,
ANSI/API Std 609: Butterfly Valves Double Flanged, Lug and Wafer Type,
ANSI/API Std 1104: Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities,
ANSI/API RP 1110: Pressure Testing of Liquid Petroleum Pipelines,
API RP 520, Part I: Sizing, Selection and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries,
API RP 520, Part II: Sizing, Selection and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries,
ANSI/API RP 521: Guide for Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring Systems,
API Std 526: Flanged Steel Safety-Relief Valves,
ANSI/API Std 527: Seat Tightness of Pressure Relief Valves,
API RP 941: Steels for Hydrogen Service at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures in Petroleum Refineries and Petrochemical Plants
3. AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS (ASME)
3.1. Piping and Piping Systems
B31.1 (2001), Power Piping (piping for industrial plants and marine applications): This code covers the minimum requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, erection, testing, and inspection of power and auxiliary service piping systems for electric generation stations, industrial institutional plants, and central and district heating plants. The code also covers external piping for power boilers and high- temperature, high-pressure water boilers in which steam or vapor is generated at a pressure of more than 15 psig and high-temperature water is generated at pressures exceeding 160 psig or temperatures exceeding
B31.2 (1968), Fuel Gas Piping: This has been withdrawn as a national standard and replaced by ANSI/NFPA Z223.1, but B31.2 is still available from ASME and is a good reference for the design of gas piping systems (from the meter to the appliance).
B31.3 (2002), Process Piping: This code covers the design of chemical and petroleum plants and refineries processing chemicals and hydrocarbons, water, and steam. It contains rules for the piping typically found in petroleum refineries; chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants; and related processing plants and terminals. The code prescribes requirements for materials and components, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, examination, inspection, and testing of piping.
This code applies to piping for all fluids, including (1) raw, intermediate, and finished chemicals; (2) petroleum products; (3) gas, steam, air, and water; (4) fluidized solids; (5) refrigerants; and (6) cryogenic fluids. Also included is piping that interconnects pieces or stages within a packaged equipment assembly.
B31.4 (2002), Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids: This code covers the requirements for the design, materials, construction, assembly, inspection, and testing of piping transporting liquids such as crude oil, condensate, natural gasoline, natural gas liquids, liquefied petroleum gas, carbon dioxide, liquid alcohol, liquid anhydrous ammonia, and liquid petroleum products between producers’ lease facilities, tank farms, natural gas processing plants, refineries, stations, ammonia plants, terminals (marine, rail, and truck), and other delivery and receiving points.
The piping consists of pipe, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, relief devices, fittings, and the pressure-containing parts of other piping components. It also includes hangers and supports and other equipment items necessary to prevent overstressing the pressure-containing parts. It does not include support structures such as frames of buildings and building stanchions or foundations. Also included within the scope of this code are the following:
• Primary and associated auxiliary liquid petroleum and liquid anhydrous ammonia piping at pipeline terminals (marine, rail, and truck), tank farms, pump stations, pressure-reducing stations, and metering stations, including scraper traps, strainers, and prover loops.
• Storage and working tanks, including pipe-type storage fabricated from pipe and fittings and the piping interconnecting these facilities.
• Liquid petroleum and liquid anhydrous ammonia piping located on property set aside for such piping within petroleum refinery, natural gasoline, gas processing, ammonia, and bulk plants.
• Those aspects of operation and maintenance of liquid pipeline systems relating to the safety and protection of the general public, operating company personnel, environment, property, and the piping systems.
B31.5 (2001), Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components: This code prescribes requirements for the materials, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, testing, and inspection of refrigerant, heat transfer components, and secondary coolant piping for temperatures as low as 3208F (1968C), whether erected on the premises or assembled in a factory, except as specifically excluded in the following paragraphs. Users are advised that other piping code Sections may provide requirements for refrigeration piping in their respective jurisdictions. This code does not apply to the following:
Any self-contained or unit systems subject to the requirements of Underwriters Laboratories or another nationally recognized testing laborator.
Water piping Piping designed for external or internal gauge pressure not exceeding15 psi (105 kPa) regardless of size Pressure vessels, compressors, or pumps.
The code does include all connecting refrigerant and secondary coolant piping starting at the first joint adjacent to such apparatus.
B31.8 (1999), Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems: This code covers the design, fabrication, installation, inspection, testing, and safety aspects of operation and maintenance of gas transmission and distribution systems, including gas pipelines, gas compressor stations, gas metering and regulation stations, gas mains, and service lines up to the outlet of the customers meter set assembly. Included within the scope of this code are gas transmission and gathering pipelines, including appurtenances, installed offshore to transport gas from production facilities to onshore locations; gas storage equipment of the closed pipe type, fabricated or forged from pipe or fabricated from pipe and fittings; and gas storage lines.
B31.8S (2001–2002), Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines: This standard applies to on-shore pipeline systems constructed with ferrous materials that transport gas. The pipeline system comprises all parts of the physical facilities through which gas is transported, including the pipe, valves, appurtenances attached to the pipe, compressor units, metering stations, regulator stations, delivery stations, holders, and fabricated assemblies.
The principles and processes embodied in integrity management are applicable to all pipeline systems. This standard is specifically designed to provide the operator (as defined in section 13) with the information necessary to develop and implement an effective integrity management program utilizing proven industry practices and processes.
The processes and approaches within this standard are applicable to the entire pipeline system.
B31.9 (1996), Building Services Piping: This code section has rules for the piping in industrial, institutional, commercial, and public buildings and multiunit residences that does not require the range of sizes, pressures, and temperatures covered in B31.1.
This code covers the requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, installation, inspection, examination, and testing of piping systems for building services. It includes piping systems in the building or within the property limits.
B31.11 (2002), Slurry Transportation Piping Systems: The code deals with the design, construction, inspection, and security requirements of slurry piping systems. It covers piping systems that transport aqueous slurries of nonhazardous materials, such as coal, mineral ores, and other solids, between a slurry processing plant and the receiving plant.
B31G (1991), Manual for Determining Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines: This section is a supplement to B31, Code-Pressure Piping.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Sections
I. Power Boilers
III.1. Division 1, Rules for Nuclear Power Plant Components
III.2. Division 2, Code for Concrete Reactor Vessels and Containments
IV. Heating Boilers
V. Nondestructive Examination
VI. Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers
VII. Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers
VIII.1. Pressure Vessels, Division 1
VIII.2. Pressure Vessels, Division 2—Alternative Rules
IX. Welding and Brazing Qualifications
X. Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels
XI. Rules for In-Service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components
Code Section Titles:
B16.1 (1998): Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings.
B16.3 (1998): Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings.
B16.4 (1998): Cast-Iron Threaded Fittings
B16.5 (1996): Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings.
B16.9 (1993): Factory-made Wrought Steel Butt Welding Fittings
B16.10 (2000): Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves
B16.11 (2001): Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded.
B16.12 (1998): Cast-Iron Threaded Drainage Fittings
B16.14 (1991): Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings and Locknuts with Pipe Threads.
B16.15 (1985; R1994): Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings.
B16.18 (1984; R1994): Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings
B16.20 (1998): Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges—Ring-Joint, Spiral-Wound, and Jacketed
B16.21 (1992): Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges.
B16.22 (1995): Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings.
B16.23 (1992): Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings (DWV Drain, Waste, and Vent).
B16.24 (1991; R1998): Cast Copper Alloy Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
B16.25 (1997): Butt Welding Ends.
B16.26 (1988): Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tubes.
B16.28 (1994): Wrought Steel Butt Welding Short Radius Elbows and Returns.
B16.29 (1994): Wrought Copper and Wrought Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings (DWV).
B16.33 (1990): Manually Operated Metallic Gas Valves for Use in Gas Piping Systems up to 125 psig.
B16.34 (1996): Valves—Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End.
B16.36 (1996): Orifice Flanges.
B16.38 (1985; R1994): Large Metallic Valves for Gas Distribution
B16.39 (1986; R1998): Malleable Iron Threaded Pipe Unions.
B16.40 (1985; R1994): Manually Operated Thermoplastic Gas.
B16.42 (1998): Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, Classes 150 and 300.
B16.44 (1995): Manually Operated Metallic Gas Valves for Use in House Piping Systems.
B16.45 (1998): Cast Iron Fittings for Solvent Drainage Systems
B16.47 (1996): Large Diameter Steel Flanges: NPS 26 through NPS 60.
B16.48 (1997): Steel Line Blanks.
B16.49 (2000): Factory-made Wrought Steel Butt Welding Induction Bends for Transportation and Distribution Systems
B16.104/FCI70-2: Control Valve Seat Leakage
4. AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS
4.1. Index of ASTM Volumes:
A vast majority of the materials of construction for process and utility piping systems used within a plant are covered by ASTM specifications. Materials and their testing methods are divided into 15 sections, each section subdivided into various volumes. ASTM covers materials of construction for industries other than the petrochemical process facilities and so many of the 15 volumes are not relevant to this industry. We now list the 15 sections and the various volumes.
Section 01. Iron and Steel Products:
01.01: Steel piping, tubing, fittings.
01.02: Ferrous castings, ferroalloys.
01.03: Steel—plate, sheet, strip, wire; stainless steel bar.
01.04: Steel—structural, reinforcing, pressure vessel, railway.
01.05: Steel—bars, forgings, bearing, chain, springs.
01.06: Coated steel products.
01.07: Ships and marine technology.
01.08: Fasteners, rolling element bearings.
Section 02. Nonferrous-Metal Products:
02.01: Copper and copper alloys.
02.02: Aluminium and magnesium alloys.
02.03: Electrical conductors.
02.04: Nonferrous Metals—nickel, cobalt, lead, tin, zinc, cadmium, precious, reactive, refractory metals and alloys; materials for thermostats, electrical heating and resistance contacts, and connectors.
02.05: Metallic and inorganic coatings, metal powders, sintered P/M structural parts.
Section 03. Metals, Test Methods, and Analytical Procedures:
03.01: Metals mechanical testing, elevated and low-temperature tests, metallography.
03.02: Wear and erosion, metal corrosion.
03.03: Nondestructive testing.
03.04: Magnetic properties.
03.05: Analytical chemistry for metals, ores, and related materials (I): E 32 to E 1724.
03.06: Analytical chemistry for metals, ores, and related materials (II): E 1763 to latest, molecular spectroscopy, surface analysis.
Sections Not Relevant. The following sections are not relevant to the petrochemical industry:
Section 04: Construction
Section 05: Petroleum products, lubricants, and fossil fuels
Section 07: Textiles
Section 08: Plastics
Section 09: Rubber
Section 10: Electrical insulation and electronics
Section 11: Water and environmental technology
Section 12: Nuclear, solar, and geothermal energy
Section 13: Medical devices and services
Section 14: General methods and instrumentation
Section 15: General products, chemical specialties, and end-use products
4.2 Commonly Used ASTM Specifications:
Listed next are the most-common ASTM specifications used in the construction of process plants, designed and constructed to ASME B31.3 or associated codes. These ASTM specifications are listed numerically in the volume in which they appear.
Section 01. Iron and Steel Products
01.01. Steel—Piping, Tubing, Fittings:
A53/A53M-02: Standard specification for pipe—steel, black and hot- dipped, zinc-coated, welded, and seamless
A105/A105M-02: Standard specification for carbon steel forgings for piping applications
A106-02a: Standard specification for seamless carbon steel pipe for high- temperature service
A134-96: Standard specification for pipe—steel, electric-fusion (arc)- welded (sizes NPS 16 and over).
A135-01: Standard specification for electric-resistance-welded steel pipe
A139-00: Standard specification for electric-fusion (arc)-welded steel pipe (NPS 4 and over).
A179/A179M-90a: Standard specification for seamless cold-drawn low-carbon steel heat-exchanger and condenser tubes
A181/A181M-01: Standard specification for carbon steel forgings, for general-purpose piping
A182/A182M-02: Standard specification for forged or rolled alloy-steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, and valves and parts for high-temperature service
A193/A193M-03: Standard specification for alloy-steel and stainless steel bolting materials for high-temperature service
A194/A194M-03b: Standard specification for carbon and alloy steel nuts for bolts for high-pressure or high-temperature service or both
A210/A210M-02: Standard specification for seamless medium-carbon steel boiler and superheater tubes
A234/A234M-03: Standard specification for piping fittings of wrought carbon steel and alloy steel for moderate- and high-temperature service
A268/A268M-03: Standard specification for seamless and welded ferritic and martensitic stainless steel tubing for general service
A269-02a: Standard specification for seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel tubing for general service
A312/A312M-03: Standard specification for seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel pipes.
A320/A320M-03: Standard specification for alloy-steel bolting materials for low-temperature service
A333/A333M-99: Standard specification for seamless and welded steel pipe for low-temperature service
A334/A334M-99: Standard specification for seamless and welded carbon and alloy-steel tubes for low-temperature service
A335/A335M-03: Standard specification for seamless ferritic alloy-steel pipe for high-temperature service
A350/A350M-02b: Standard specification for carbon and low-alloy steel forgings, requiring notch toughness testing for piping component
A358/A358M-01: Standard specification for electric-fusion-welded austeni- tic chromium-nickel alloy steel pipe for high-temperature service.
A369/A369M-02: Standard specification for carbon and ferritic alloy steel forged and bored pipe for high-temperature service.
A376/A376M-02a: Standard specification for seamless austenitic steel pipe for high-temperature central-station service
A381-96(2001): Standard specification for metal-arc-welded steel pipe for use with high-pressure transmission systems
A403/A403M-03a: Standard specification for wrought austenitic stainless steel piping fittings
A409/A409M-01: Standard specification for welded large-diameter austeni- tic steel pipe for corrosive or high-temperature service.
A420/A420M-02: Standard specification for piping fittings of wrought carbon steel and alloy steel for low-temperature service.
A437/A437M-01a: Standard specification for alloy-steel turbine-type bolt- ing material specially heat treated for high-temperature service.
A453/A453M-02: Standard specification for high-temperature bolting materials, with expansion coefficients comparable to austenitic stainless steels
A524-96: Standard specification for seamless carbon steel pipe for atmospheric and lower temperatures
A530/A530M-03: Standard specification for general requirements for specialized carbon and alloy steel pipe
A587-96: Standard specification for electric-resistance-welded low- carbon steel pipe for the chemical industry
A671-96: Standard specification for electric-fusion-welded steel pipe for atmospheric and lower temperatures
A672-96: Standard specification for electric-fusion-welded steel pipe for high-pressure service at moderate temperatures
A691-98: Standard specification for carbon and alloy steel pipe, electric-fusion-welded for high-pressure service at high temperatures.
A789/A789M-02a: Standard specification for seamless and welded ferritic/ austenitic stainless steel tubing for general service
A790/A790M-03: Standard specification for seamless and welded ferritic/ austenitic stainless steel pipe.
A815/A815M-01a: Standard specification for wrought ferritic, ferritic / austenitic,and martensitic stainless steel piping fittings.
01.02 Ferrous Castings, Ferroalloys:
A47/A47M-99: Standard specification for ferritic malleable iron castings
A48/A48M-00: Standard specification for gray iron castings
A126-95: Standard specification for gray iron castings for valves, flanges, and pipe fittings
A216/A216M-93: Standard specification for steel castings, carbon, suitable for fusion welding, for high-temperature service
A217/A217M-02: Standard specification for steel castings, martensitic stainless and alloy, for pressure-containing parts, suitable for high- temperature service
A278/A278M-01: Standard specification for gray iron castings for pressure- containing parts for temperatures up to 6508F (3508C)
A351/A351M-03: Standard specification for castings, austenitic, austenitic- ferritic (duplex), for pressure-containing parts
A352/A352M-03: Standard specification for steel castings, ferritic and martensitic, for pressure-containing parts, suitable for low-temperature service
A395/A395M-99: Standard specification for ferritic ductile iron pressure- retaining castings for use at elevated temperatures
A426/A426M-02: Standard specification for centrifugally cast ferritic alloy steel pipe for high-temperature service
A451/A451M-02: Standard specification for centrifugally cast austenitic steel pipe for high-temperature service
A487/A487M-93: Standard specification for steel castings suitable for pressure service
A494/A494M-03a: Standard specification for castings, nickel and nickel alloy
A571/A571M-01: Standard specification for austenitic ductile iron castings for pressure-containing parts suitable for low-temperature service
01.03 Steel—Plate, Sheet, Strip, Wire; Stainless Steel Bar:
A167-99: Standard specification for stainless and heat-resisting chromium- nickel steel plate, sheet, and strip.
A240/A240M-03c: Standard specification for chromium and chromium- nickel stainless steel plate, sheet, and strip for pressure vessels and for general applications.
A263-03: Standard specification for stainless chromium steel-clad plate
A264-03: Standard specification for stainless chromium-nickel steel-clad plate, sheet, and strip
A265-03: Standard specification for nickel and nickel-base alloy-clad steel plate
A479/A479M-03: Standard specification for stainless steel bars and shapes for use in boilers and other high-pressure vessels
01.04 Steel—Structural, Reinforcing, Pressure Vessel, Railway
A20/A20M-02: Standard specification for general requirements for steel plates for pressure vessels
A36/A36M-03a: Standard specification for carbon structural steel
A202/A202M-03: Standard specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, chromium-manganese-silicon
A203/A203M-9: Standard specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, nickel
A204/A204M-03: Standard specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, molybdenum
A285/A285M-03: Standard specification for pressure vessel plates, carbon steel, low- and intermediate-tensile strength.
A299/A299M-03e1: Standard specification for pressure vessel plates, carbon steel, manganese-silicon
A302/A302M-03: Standard specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, manganese-molybdenum and manganese-molybdenum-nickel
A353/A353M-93: Standard specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, 9% nickel, double-normalized and tempered.
A387/A387M-03: Standard specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, chromium-molybdenum
A515/A515M-03: Standard specification for pressure vessel plates, carbon steel, for intermediate- and higher-temperature service
A516/A516M-03: Standard specification for pressure vessel plates, carbon steel, for moderate- and lower-temperature service
A537/A537M-95: Standard specification for pressure vessel plates, heat-treated, carbon-manganese-silicon steel
A553/A553M-95: Standard specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, quenched and tempered 8% and 9% nickel.
A645/A645M-99a: Standard specification for pressure vessel plates, 5% nickel alloy steel, specially heat treated.
01.05 Steel—Bars, Forgings, Bearings, Chains, Springs:
A508/A508M-03: Standard specification for quenched and tempered vacuum-treated carbon and alloy steel forgings for pressure vessels.
A675/A675M-90a: Standard specification for steel bars, carbon, hot- wrought, special quality, mechanical properties.
01.06 Coated Steel Products:
A123/A123M-02: Standard specification for zinc (hot-dip galvanized) coatings on iron and steel products
A153/A153M-03: Standard specification for zinc coating (hot-dip) on iron and steel hardware
A307-03: Standard specification for carbon steel bolts and studs, 60,000 psi tensile strength.
A325-02: Standard specification for structural bolts, steel, heat-treated, 120/ 105 ksi minimum tensile strength
A325M-03: Standard specification for structural bolts, steel heat-treated 830 MPa minimum tensile strength (metric)
A354-03a: Standard specification for quenched and tempered alloy steel bolts, studs, and other externally threaded fasteners.
A563-00: Standard specification for carbon and alloy steel nuts.
Section 02. Non-Ferrous Metal Products
02.01 Copper and Copper Alloys:
B21/B21M-01e1: Standard specification for naval brass rod, bars, and shapes.
B42-02: Standard specification for seamless copper pipe, standard sizes
B43-98: Standard specification for seamless red brass pipe, standard sizes
B61-02: Standard specification for steam or valve bronze castings.
B62-02: Standard specification for composition bronze or ounce metal castings
B68-02: Standard specification for seamless copper tube, bright annealed.
B68M-99: Standard specification for seamless copper tube, bright annealed (metric).
B75M-99: Standard specification for seamless copper tube (metric)
B75-02: Standard specification for seamless copper tube
B88-02: Standard specification for seamless copper water tube
B88M-99: Standard specification for seamless copper water tube (metric)
B96/B96M-01: Standard specification for copper-silicon alloy plate, sheet, strip, and rolled bar for general purposes and pressure vessels.
B98/B98M-03: Standard specification for copper-silicon alloy rod, bars, and shapes.
B148-97: Standard specification for aluminum-bronze sand castings
B150/B150M-03: Standard specification for aluminum bronze rod, bars, and shapes.
B152/B152M-00: Standard specification for copper sheet, strip, plate, and rolled bar.
B169/B169M-01: Standard specification for aluminum bronze sheet, strip, and rolled bar.
B171/B171M-99e2: Standard specification for copper-alloy plate and sheet for pressure vessels, condensers, and heat exchangers
B187/B187M-03: Standard specification for copper, bus bar, rod, and shapes and general-purpose rod, bar, and shapes
B280-02: Standard specification for seamless copper tube for air conditioning and refrigeration field service.
B283-99a: Standard specification for copper and copper-alloy die forgings (hot pressed).
B466/B466M-98: Standard specification for seamless copper-nickel pipe and tube
B467-88: Standard specification for welded copper-nickel pipe
B584-00: Standard specification for copper alloy sand castings for general applications
02.02 Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys:
B26/B26M-03: Standard specification for aluminum-alloy sand castings
B209-02a: Standard specification for aluminum and aluminum-alloy sheet and plate
B209M-03: Standard specification for aluminum and aluminum-alloy sheet and plate (metric)
B210-02: Standard specification for aluminum and aluminum-alloy drawn seamless tubes
B210M-02: Standard specification for aluminum and aluminum-alloy drawn seamless tubes (metric)
B211-02: Standard specification for aluminum and aluminum-alloy bar, rod, and wire
B211M-02: Standard specification for aluminum and aluminum-alloy bar, rod, and wire (metric)
B221M-02: Standard specification for aluminum and aluminum-alloy extruded bars, rods, wire, profiles, and tubes (metric)
B221-02: Standard specification for aluminum and aluminum-alloy extruded bars, rods, wire, profiles, and tubes.
B241/B241M-02: Standard specification for aluminum and aluminum-alloy seamless pipe and seamless extruded tube
B247-02a: Standard specification for aluminum and aluminum-alloy die forgings, hand forgings, and rolled ring forgings.
B247M-02a: Standard specification for aluminum and aluminum-alloy die forgings, hand forgings, and rolled ring forgings (metric).
B345/B345M-02: Standard specification for aluminum and aluminum-alloy seamless pipe and seamless extruded tube for gas and oil transmission and distribution piping systems
B361-02: Standard specification for factory-made wrought aluminum and aluminum-alloy welding fittings
B491/B491M-00: Standard specification for aluminum and aluminum-alloy extruded round tubes for general-purpose applications.
02.03 Electrical Conductors. This material is not referenced in ASME B31.3.
02.04 Nonferrous Metals—Nickel, Cobalt, Lead, Tin, Zinc, Cadmium, Precious, Reactive, Refractory Metals and Alloys; Materials for Thermostats, Electrical Heating and Resistance Contacts, and Connectors:
B127-98: Standard specification for nickel-copper alloy (UNS N04400) plate, sheet, and strip
B160-99: Standard specification for nickel rod and bar
B161-03: Standard specification for nickel seamless pipe and tube
B162-99: Standard specification for nickel plate, sheet, and strip
B164-03: Standard specification for nickel-copper alloy rod, bars, and wire.
B165-93: Standard specification for nickel-copper alloy (UNS N04400)* seamless pipe and tube
B166-01: Standard specification nickel-chromium-iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, and N06045) and nickel- chromium-cobalt-molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617) rod, bar, and wire.
B167-01: Standard specification for nickel-chromium-iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, and N06045) and nickel-chromium-cobalt-molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617) seamless pipe and tube.
B168-01: Standard specification for nickel-chromium-iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, and N06045) and nickel-chromium-cobalt-molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617) plate, sheet, and strip.
B265-02: Standard specification for titanium and titanium-alloy strip, sheet, and plate
B333-03: Standard specification for nickel-molybdenum alloy plate, sheet, and strip.
B335-03: Standard specification for nickel-molybdenum alloy rod.
B338-02: Standard specification for seamless and welded titanium and titanium-alloy tubes for condensers and heat exchangers.
B363-03: Standard specification for seamless and welded unalloyed titanium and titanium-alloy welding fittings
B381-02: Standard specification for titanium and titanium-alloy forgings
B407-01: Standard specification for nickel-iron-chromium alloy seamless pipe and tube.
B409-01: Standard Specification for nickel-iron-chromium alloy plate, sheet, and strip.
B435-03: Standard specification for UNS N06002, UNS N06230, UNS N12160, and UNS R30556 plate, sheet, and strip
B443-00e1. Standard specification for nickel-chromium-molybdenum- columbium alloy (UNS N06625) and nickel-chromium-molybdenum- silicon alloy (UNS N06219) plate, sheet, and strip.
B444-03: Standard specification for nickel-chromium-molybdenum-columbium alloys (UNS N06625) and nickel-chromium-molybdenum-silicon alloy (UNS N06219) pipe and tube.
B446-03: Standard specification for nickel-chromium-molybdenum-columbium alloy (UNS N06625), nickel-chromium-molybdenum-silicon alloy (UNS N06219), and nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloy (UNS N06650) rod and bar
B462-02: Specification for forged or rolled UNS N06030, UNS N06022, UNS N06200, UNS N08020, UNS N08024, UNS N08026, UNS N08367, UNS N10276, UNS N10665, UNS N10675, and UNS R20033 alloy pipe flanges, forged fittings and valves and parts for corrosive high- temperature service.
B463-99: Standard specification for UNS N08020, UNS N08026, and UNS N08024 alloy plate, sheet, and strip
B464-99: Standard specification for welded UNS N08020, UNS N08024, and UNS N08026 alloy pipe.
B493-01: Standard specification for zirconium and zirconium alloy forgings.
B514-95(2002) e1: Standard specification for welded nickel-iron-chromium alloy pipe.
B517-03: Standard specification for welded nickel-chromium-iron- alloy (UNS N06600, UNS N06603, UNS N06025, and UNS N06045) pipe.
B523/B523M-02: Standard specification for seamless and welded zirconium and zirconium alloy tubes.
B550/B550M-02: Standard specification for zirconium and zirconium alloy bar and wire
B551/B551M-02: Standard specification for zirconium and zirconium alloy strip, sheet, and plate.
B564-00a: Standard specification for nickel alloy forgings.
B574-99a: Specification for low-carbon nickel-molybdenum-chromium, low-carbon nickel-chromium-molybdenum, low-carbon nickel-molybdenum-chromium-tantalum, low-carbon nickel-chromium-molybdenum- copper, low-carbon nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloy rod
B575-99a: Specification for low-carbon nickel-molybdenum-chromium, low-carbon nickel-chromium-molybdenum, low-carbon nickel-chromium-molybdenum-copper, low-carbon nickel-chromium-molybdenum- tantalum, low-carbon nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloy plate, sheet and strip.
B619-00: Standard specification for welded nickel and nickel-cobalt alloy pipe.
B620-03: Standard specification for nickel-iron-chromium-molybdenum alloy (UNS N08320) plate, sheet, and strip.
B621-02: Standard specification for nickel-iron-chromium-molybdenum alloy (UNS N08320) rod.
B622-00: Standard specification for seamless nickel and nickel-cobalt alloy pipe and tube.
B625-99: Standard specification for UNS N08904, UNS N08925, UNS N08031, UNS N08932, UNS N08926, and UNS R20033 plate, sheet, and strip
B658/B658M-02: Standard specification for seamless and welded zirconium and zirconium-alloy pipe
B675-02: Standard specification for UNS N08367 welded pipe.
B688-96: Standard specification for chromium-nickel-molybdenum-iron (UNS N08366 and UNS N08367) plate, sheet, and strip
B690-02: Standard specification for iron-nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys (UNS N08366 and UNS N08367) seamless pipe and tube.
B705-00: Standard specification for nickel-alloy (UNS N06625, UNS N06219 and UNS N08825) welded pipe.
B725-93: Standard specification for welded nickel (UNS N02200/UNS N02201) and nickel-copper alloy (UNS N04400) pipe
B729-00: Standard specification for seamless UNS N08020, UNS N08026, and UNS N08024 nickel-alloy pipe and tube
Section 03. Metals, Test Methods, and Analytical Procedures
03.01 Metals Mechanical Testing:
Elevated and Low-Temperature Tests, Metallography. E112-96e2 Standard test methods for determining average grain size
03.02 Wear and Erosion, Metal Corrosion:
This situation is not referenced in ASME B31.3.
03.03 Nondestructive Testing.
E114-95: Standard practice for ultrasonic pulse-echo straight-beam examination by the contact method
E125-63: Standard reference photographs for magnetic particle indications on ferrous castings.
E155-00: Standard reference radiographs for inspection of aluminum and magnesium castings.
E165-02: Standard test method for liquid penetrates examination
E186-98: Standard reference radiographs for heavy-walled (2–41⁄2 –12 in.; 51–114 mm) steel castings
E213-02: Standard practice for ultrasonic examination of metal pipe and tubing
E272-99: Standard reference radiographs for high-strength copper-base and nickel-copper alloy castings.
E280-98: Standard reference radiographs for heavy-walled (41⁄2 –12 in.; 114–305 mm) steel castings.
E310-99: Standard reference radiographs for tin bronze castings.
E446-98: Standard reference radiographs for steel castings up to 2 in. (51 mm) thickness.
E709-01: Standard guide for magnetic particle examination
03.04 Magnetic Properties. Such properties are not referenced in ASME B31.3.
5. AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY
A3.0: 2001. Standard welding terms and definitions, including terms for adhesive bonding, brazing, soldering, thermal cutting, and thermal spraying.
A5.01-93R. Filler metal procurement guidelines.
A5-ALL: Filler metal specifications series plus filler metal procurement guide.
6. AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION
Ductile-Iron Pipe and Fittings:
C110/A21.10-03: ANSI standard for ductile-iron and gray-iron fittings, 3–48 in. (76–1219 mm), for water
C111/A21.11-00: ANSI standard for rubber-gasket joints for ductile-iron pressure pipe and fittings
C115/A21.15-99: ANSI standard for flanged ductile-iron pipe with ductile- iron or gray-iron threaded flanges
C150/A21.50-02: ANSI standard for thickness design of ductile-iron pipe
C151/A21.51-02: ANSI standard for ductile-iron pipe, centrifugally cast, for water
C200-97: Steel water pipe—6 in. (150 mm) and larger
C207-01: Steel pipe flanges for waterworks service—sizes 4–144 in. (100–3600 mm).
C208-01: Dimensions for fabricated steel water pipe fittings
C300-97: Reinforced concrete pressure pipe, steel-cylinder type
C301-99: Prestressed concrete pressure pipe, steel-cylinder type
C302-95: Reinforced concrete pressure pipe, no cylinder type
Valves and Hydrants:
C500-02: Metal-Seated gate valves for water supply service (includes addendum C500a-95).
C504-00: Rubber-seated butterfly valves.
C507-99: Ball valves, 6–48 in. (150–1200 mm).
C900-97: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pressure pipe, and fabricated fittings, 4–12 in. (100–300 mm), for water distribution.
C950-01: Fiberglass pressure pipe.
7. MANUFACTURERS STANDARDIZATION SOCIETY:
SP-6: Standard finishes for contact faces of pipe flanges and connecting-end flanges of valves and fittings.
SP-9: Spot facing for bronze, iron, and steel flanges
SP-25: Standard marking system for valves, fittings, flanges, and unions
SP-42: Class 150 corrosion resistant gate, globe, angle, and check valves with flanged and butt weld ends.
SP-43: Wrought stainless steel butt-welding fittings
SP-44: Steel pipeline flanges
SP-45: Bypass and drain connections
SP-51: Class 150LW corrosion-resistant cast flanges and flanged fittings
SP-53: Quality standard for steel castings and forgings for valves, flanges, and fittings and other piping components, magnetic particle exam method
SP-54: Quality standard for steel castings for valves, flanges, and fittings and other piping components, radiographic examination method
SP-55: Quality standard for steel castings for valves, flanges, fittings, and other piping components, visual method for evaluation of surface irregularities.
SP-58: Pipe hangers and supports—materials, design, and manu- facture
SP-60: Connecting flange joint between tapping sleeves and tapping valves
SP-61: Pressure testing of steel valves
SP-65: High-pressure chemical industry flanges and threaded stubs for use with lens gaskets.
SP-67: Butterfly valves
SP-68: High-pressure butterfly valves with offset design
SP-69: Pipe hangers and supports—selection and application
SP-70: Cast-iron gate valves, flanged and threaded ends.
SP-71: Gray-iron swing check valves, flanged and threaded ends.
SP-72: Ball valves with flanged or butt-welding ends for general service
SP-73: Brazing joints for copper and copper-alloy pressure fittings
SP-75: Specification for high-test wrought butt-welding fittings
SP-77: Guidelines for pipe support contractual relationships
SP-78: Cast-iron plug valves, flanged and threaded ends
SP-79: Socket-welding reducer inserts
SP-80: Bronze gate, globe, angle, and check valves
SP-81: Stainless Steel, Bonnetless, Flanged Knife Gate Valves
SP-82: Valve-pressure testing methods
SP-83: Class 3000 steel pipe unions, socket welding and threaded
SP-85: Cast-iron globe and angle valves, flanged and threaded ends
SP-86: Guidelines for metric data in standards for valves, flanges, fittings and actuators
SP-88: Diaphragm valves
SP-89: Pipe hangers and supports—fabrication and installation practices
SP-90: Guidelines on terminology for pipe hangers and supports
SP-91: Guidelines for manual operation of valves
SP-92: MSS valve user guide.
SP-93: Quality standard for steel castings and forgings for valves, flanges, and fittings and other piping components, liquid-penetrant exam method
SP-94: Quality standard for ferritic and martensitic steel castings for valves, flanges, and fittings and other piping components, ultrasonic exam method
SP-95: Swage (d) nipples and bull plugs
SP-96: Guidelines on terminology for valves and fittings
SP-97: Integrally reinforced forged branch outlet fittings—socket welding, threaded, and butt welding ends.
SP-98: Protective coatings for the interior of valves, hydrants, and fittings
SP-99: Instrument valves
SP-100: Qualification requirements for elastomer diaphragms for nuclear service diaphragm-type valves
SP-101: Part-turn valve actuator attachment—flange and driving component dimensions and performance characteristics
SP-102: Multiturn valve actuator attachment—flange and driving component dimensions and performance characteristics
SP-103: Wrought copper and copper-alloy insert fittings for polybutylene systems.
SP-104: Wrought copper solder joint pressure fittings.
SP-105: Instrument valves for code applications
SP-106: Cast copper-alloy flanges and flanged fittings, Class 125, 150 and 300
SP-107: Transition union fittings for joining metal and plastic products
SP-108: Resilient-seated cast iron-eccentric plug valves
SP-109: Welded fabricated copper solder joint pressure fittings
SP-110: Ball Valves threaded, socket-welding, solder joint, grooved and flared ends
SP-111: Gray-iron and ductile-iron tapping sleeves
SP-112: Quality standard for evaluation of cast surface finishes— visual and tactile method (this SP must be sold with a 10-surface, three- dimensional cast surface comparator, which is a necessary part of the standard)
SP-113: Connecting joint between tapping machines and tapping valves
SP-114: Corrosion resistant pipe fittings threaded and socket welding, Class 150 and 1000
SP-115: Excess flow valves for natural gas service
SP-116: Service line valves and fittings for drinking water systems
SP-117: Bellows seals for globe and gate valves
SP-118: Compact steel globe and check valves—flanged, flangeless, threaded and welding ends (chemical and petroleum refinery service)
SP-119: Factory-made wrought belled-end socket-welding fittings
SP-120: Flexible graphite packing system for rising-stem steel valves (design requirements)
SP-121: Qualification testing methods for stem packing for rising-stem steel valves.
SP-122: Plastic industrial ball valves
SP-123: Nonferrous threaded and solder-joint unions for use with copper water tube
SP-124: Fabricated tapping sleeves.
SP-125: Gray-iron and ductile-iron in-line, spring-loaded, center- guided check valves.
SP-126: Steel in-line spring-assisted center guided check valves.
SP-127: Bracing for piping systems seismic-wind-dynamic design, selection, application
SP-129: Copper-nickel socket-welding fittings and unions
SP-130: Bellows seals for instrument valves.
8. NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CORROSION ENGINEERS (NACE) MR0175:
Metals for sulfide stress cracking and stress corrosion cracking resistance in sour oilfield environments.
RP0170: Protection of austenitic stainless steels and other austenitic alloys from polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking during shutdown of refinery equipment.
RP0472: Methods and controls to prevent in-service environmental cracking of carbon steel weldments in corrosive petroleum refining environments.
9. SOCIETY OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS:
SAE J513: Refrigeration tube fittings—general specifications
SAE J514: Hydraulic tube fittings
SAE J518: Hydraulic flanged tube, pipe, and hose connections, four- bolt split flange type.
Wednesday, December 3, 2008
Codes relating to piping provide specific design criteria such as allowable materials, working stresses, seismic loads, thermal expansion, and other imposed internal or external loads as well as fabrication, installation, and testing for many aspects of a total piping system. Code compliance is mandated by various federal, state, and local agencies that have jurisdiction and enforcement authority. Each code has precisely defined limitations on its jurisdiction. Familiarity with these limitations can be obtained only after a thorough reading of the code. These codes often refer to standards prepared by nationally recognized organizations. The term nationally recognized is defined as a group or organization composed of a nationwide membership representative of its members’ views. To achieve nationally recognized status, an association must have been in existence for a reasonable period of time, be active in research and other issues relating to its area of interest, and be generally regarded by its peers to be scientifically accurate.
Standards provide specific design criteria and rules for specific components or classes of components such as valves, joints, and fittings. Dimensional standards provide control for components to assure that components supplied by different manufacturers are physically interchangeable. Pressure integrity standards provide performance criteria so that components supplied by different manufacturers will function and be service rated (pressure and temperature) in a similar manner. Standards compliance is usually required by construction or building codes or purchaser specifications. The following definitions are generally accepted.
CODE: A group of general rules or systematic procedure for design, fabrication, installation and inspection prepared in such a manner that it can be adopted by legal jurisdiction and made into law.
STANDARDS: Document prepared by a professional group or committee who are believed to be good and proper engineering practice and which contain mandatory requirements. The users are responsible for the correct application of the same. Compliance with a standard does not itself confer immunity from legal obligation.
In any piping system design, if different code requirements are discovered, the most stringent requirements must be followed. The applicability of various codes and standards must be ascertained before the start of a project, because submission of plans is often required for approval prior to construction and installation of the piping systems. This requires a code search and consultation with the various authorities having jurisdiction.
AMERICAN GAS ASSOCIATION (AGA)
The AGA advances the safe, economical, and dependable transport of gas to the public. In conjunction with the NFPA, it publishes NFPA-54, the Fuel Gas Code.
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE (ANSI)
ANSI serves as the national coordinating institution for voluntary standardization and related activities in the
AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE (API)
This organization affords a means to cooperate with the government in all matters of national concern relating to American petroleum products; to foster foreign and domestic trade in American petroleum products; to promote in general the interests of all branches of the petroleum industry; to promote the mutual improvement of its members and the study of the arts and sciences connected with the petroleum industry.
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF TESTING AND MATERIALS (ASTM)
ASTM’s objectives are to develop full consensus standards for the characteristics and performance of various materials, products, standards, and services; to develop and publish information designed to promote the understanding and advancement of technology; and to ensure the quality and safety of products and services.
ASTM has developed standards that consist of 67 volumes divided into 16 sections. Each volume is published annually to incorporate new standards and revisions.
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS (ASME)
ASME promotes the arts and sciences connected with engineering and mechanical construction for scientific purposes.
The ASME publishes the two principal codes used in facility systems: the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and ASME B31 series, Code for Pressure Piping. The Code for Pressure Piping has the following published sections:
B31.l. Power Piping
B31.3. Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping
B31.4. Liquid Transpiration Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid and Petroleum
Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols
B31.5. Refrigeration Piping
B31.8. Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping
B31.9. Building Services Piping
B31.11. Slurry Transportation Piping
AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (AWWA)
The purpose of the AWWA is to promote public health, safety, and welfare by improving the quality and increasing the quantity of water delivered to the public and to further an understanding of the problems involved by:
1. Advancing the knowledge, design, construction, operation, water treatment, and management of water utilities
2. Developing standards for procedures, equipment, and materials used by public water supply systems
3. Advancing the knowledge of problems involved in the development of resources, production, and distribution of safe and adequate water supplies
4. Educating the public on the problems of water supply and promoting a spirit of cooperation between consumers and suppliers in solving problems
5. Conducting research to determine the causes of the problems of providing a safe and adequate water supply and proposing solutions in an effort to improve the quality and quantity of the water supply
AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY (AWS)
The purpose of the AWS is to encourage in the broadest sense the advancement of welding, to encourage and conduct research in sciences related to welding, and to engage and assist in the development of sound practices for the application of welding and related processes.
COMPRESSED GAS ASSOCIATION (CGA)
The CGA is a trade organization that writes and publishes guides, in the form of pamphlets, that include all aspects of compressed gas storage, distribution, and purity.
CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS (CFR)
The Code of Federal Regulations is the collection of the general and permanent rules and regulations originally published in the Federal Register by agencies of the federal government. There are 50 separate titles that are revised once a year. The most up-to-date information will be found in the Federal Register on a daily basis until revision is made to the CFR.
ISO is the English translation of the International Organization for Standardization based in
ISO standards are voluntary between members and are not a legal requirement. They assure that a manufacturer has a quality assurance system in place and that the procedures are written, documented, and observed by all employees. The ISO
9000 series consists of five quality standards:
1. ISO 9000, ANSI / ASQC Q90 defines the terms and presents principal quality management and quality assurance practices used in the ISO 9000 series of standards and establishes guidelines for their selection and use. This standard is applicable to all industries.
2. ISO 9001, ANSI / ASQC Q91 establishes models for quality assurance in the design, development, production, manufacture, installation, and service sectors of an organization. This standard, which is the most comprehensive of the three external quality assurance standards, is applicable to organizations that develop and produce their own products. This also applies to construction and engineering services.
3. ISO 9002, ANSI / ASQC Q92 establishes models for quality assurance in production and installation. This standard is applicable to service industries and manufacturers that produce designs and specifications for other organizations.
4. ISO 9003, ANSI / ASQC Q93 establishes models for quality assurance during final inspections and testing. This standard is applicable to testing laboratories, small shops, divisions within a firm, and equipment distributors that inspect and test supplied products.
5. ISO 9004, ANSI / ASQC Q94 establishes internal organization management guidelines for design and implementation of quality systems; it is applicable to all industries.
MANUFACTURERS STANDARDIZATION OF THE VALVE AND FITTINGS INDUSTRY (MSS)
The MSS is a technical industry association organized for the development and improvement of industrial, national, and international codes and standards for valves, valve actuators, pipe fittings, flanges, pipe hangers, and seals. Society membership is composed of companies involved in the manufacture of these products. This society is recognized as the technical counterpart of the Valve Manufacturers Association and the American Pipe and Fittings Association, two nationally recognized trade associations.
Development of standards is a major part of its activities. The MSS provides technical assistance to other standards writing bodies in need of the expertise provided by its members. Many standards developed by MSS have been adopted as national standards, referenced by many codes.
NATIONAL ELECTRICAL MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NEMA)
NEMA is a nonprofit trade organization that establishes standards for motors, motor dimensions, and enclosures and sets minimum performance standards for many electrical devices.
NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA)
The NFPA (also abbreviated NFiPA to avoid conflict with the National Fluid Power Association) is a scientific and educational organization concerned with the causes, prevention, and control of destructive fire. Its purpose is to facilitate and encourage information exchange and to enhance the standards development process by pro- viding the broadest possible forum for the consideration of proposed fire safety standards.
The NFPA is the principal source of consensus fire protection standards and codes. These codes and standards are written by voluntary technical committees and have been recognized by their adaptation and reference by statutory and regulatory law at all levels of government. More than 250 separate standards and codes have been published and are codified in the volumes of the National Fire Codes.
NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (NRC)
Created in 1975, the NRC is the government agency responsible for protecting the public health and safety relating to the use and disposal of nuclear material. The NRC regulates all industrial, commercial, and institutional uses of nuclear material including power plants. Services include the establishment of standards and regulations for the use and disposal of nuclear material, licenses for the use of nuclear material, and inspection of users to assure compliance with the applicable rules and regulations and the terms of individual license agreements. The NRC also provides services to states when a request is made and regulatory criteria and regulations are in place.
Friday, November 28, 2008
Pipes are hollow structure, usually cylindrical, for conducting fluids. It is used primarily to convey liquids, gases, or solids suspended in a liquid, e.g., slurry. It is also used as a conduit for electric wires.
The earliest pipes were probably made of bamboo, used by the Chinese to carry water c.5000 B.C. The Egyptians made the first metal pipe of copper c.3000 B.C. Until cast iron became relatively cheap in the 18th cent. Most pipes were made of bored stone or wood, clay, lead, and, occasionally, copper or bronze. Modern materials include cast iron, wrought iron, steel, copper, brass, lead, concrete, wood, glass, and plastic. Welded steel pipe is made by bending strips of steel into the form of a tube and welding the longitudinal seam either by electric resistance, by fusion welding, or by heating the tube and pressing the edges together. Seamless pipe is made from a solid length of metal pierced lengthwise by a mandrel with a rounded nose.
Steel pipe, introduced in the early 20th cent., is widely used for conducting substances at extremely high pressures and temperatures. Cast-iron pipes, which came into common use in the 1840s, resist corrosion better than steel pipes and are therefore frequently used underground. Clay and concrete pipes usually carry sewage, and concrete pipes are also used to carry irrigation water at low pressures; for moderate pressures, the concrete is reinforced with steel or mixed with asbestos. Seamless copper and brass pipes are used for plumbing and boilers. Because of its softness and resistance to corrosion, lead is used for flexible connections and for plumbing that does not carry drinking water. The chemical and food industries use glass pipes. During World War II manufacturers developed plastic pipe to replace metals that were in short supply. Today PVC pipe is widely used to carry waste water as well as certain corrosive liquids.
A pipeline carries carry the lifeblood of modern civilization. In a modern city they transport water from the sources of water supply to the points of distribution; convey waste from residential and commercial buildings and other civic facilities to the treatment facility or the point of discharge. Similarly, pipelines carry crude oil from oil wells to tank farms for storage or to refineries for processing. The natural gas transportation and distribution lines convey natural gas from the source and storage tank forms to points of utilization, such as power plants, industrial facilities, and commercial and residential communities. In chemical plants, paper mills, food processing plants, and other similar industrial establishments, the piping systems are utilized to carry liquids, chemicals, mixtures, gases, vapors, and solids from one location to another.
Piping includes pipe, flanges, fittings, bolting, gaskets, valves, and the pressure- containing portions of other piping components. It also includes pipe hangers and supports and other items necessary to prevent over pressurization and overstressing of the pressure-containing components. It is evident that pipe is one element or a part of piping. Therefore, pipe sections when joined with fittings, valves, and other mechanical equipment and properly supported by hangers and supports, are called piping
Pipes can be defined as a pressure tight cylinder used to convey a fluid. The pipes are available in standard length of 20feet (6m).The media conveyed may be of different pressure temperature. Various types of pipes are used depending upon the nature of fluid, quantity to be transported, service condition, and cost of production and installation deterioration, liability of failure and result of such failure, its pressure and velocity.
● ASME B36.10M Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe
● ASME B36.19M Stainless Steel Pipe
The word “pipe” is used as distinguished from “tube” to apply to tabular products of dimensions commonly used for piping systems. The pipes dimensions of sizes 12” (300mm) and smaller have outside diameter numerically larger than corresponding sizes. In contrast, the out side diameter of tubes is numerically identical to the size number for all sizes.
The tubes and pipes can compare on the following lines:
1) Lower thickness and higher ductility of the tubes permits rolling into coils without higher differential stress between inside and outside of coils.
2) Tubes are specified by outside diameter and actual thickness in mm or inch or wire gauge.
3) Uniform thickness in tubes means less chances of failure due to hot spot.
4) Low roughness factor and low pressure drop.
5) Normally used in heat exchanger and coils for heat transfer.
1) Lower ductility makes it unsuitable to coil. Due to higher moment of inertia larger bending moment is required for the same radius. This means larger residual stress.
2) Specified by NOMINAL BORE and thickness by SCHEDULE.
3) Variation in thickness can cause hot spot and consequent failure.
4) Higher roughness factor and higher pressure drop.
5) Normally used in straight length for fluid transfer.
DIAMETER AND WALL THICKNESS OF PIPE:
The size of all pipe is identified by the Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) which is seldom equal to the true bore (internal diameter) of the pipe, the difference is some instance is larger. 14 inch NPS and larger pipes has out side diameter equal to the nominal pipe size
Initially Pipes were manufactured as Iron Pipe Size (IPS) was established to designate the pipe size. The size represented the approximate inside diameter of the pipe in inches. An IPS 6 pipe is one whose inside diameter is approximately 6 inches (in). Users started to call the pipe as 2-in, 4-in, 6-in pipe and so on. To begin, each pipe size was produced to have one thickness, which later was termed as standard (STD) or standard weight (STD. WT.). The outside diameter of the pipe was standardized. As the industrial requirements demanded the handling of higher-pressure fluids, pipes were produced having thicker walls, which came to be known as extra strong (XS). The higher pressure requirements increased further, requiring thicker wall pipes. Accordingly, pipes were manufactured with double extra strong (XXS) walls while the standardized outside diameters are unchanged.
With the development of stronger and corrosion-resistant piping materials, the need for thinner wall pipe resulted in a new method of specifying pipe size and wall thickness. The designation known as nominal pipe size (NPS) replaced IPS, and the term schedule (SCH) was invented to specify the nominal wall thickness of pipe. Nominal pipe size (NPS) is a dimensionless designator of pipe size. It indicates standard pipe size when followed by the specific size designation number without an inch symbol. For example, NPS 2 indicates a pipe whose outside diameter is 2.375 in. The NPS 12 and smaller pipe has outside diameter greater than the size designator (say, 2, 4, 6,.). However, the outside diameter of NPS 14 and larger pipe is the same as the size designator in inches. For example, NPS 14 pipe has an outside diameter equal to 14 in. The inside diameter will depend upon the pipe wall thickness specified by the schedule number. Refer to ASME B36.10 or ASME B36.19.
Diameter nominal (DN) is also a dimensionless designator of pipe size in the metric unit system, developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO). It indicates standard pipe size when followed by the specific size designation number
1. Nominal Bore (NB): It indicates standard pipe size designation number with mm or inch symbol E.g.:- 2” NB or 50mm NB.
2. Nominal Pipe Size (NPS): This is dimensionless designator in USCS. It indicates standard pipe size designation number without inch symbol. E.g.:-NPS 2, NPS12
3. Nominal Diameter (DN): this is dimensionless designation in metric system; it indicates standard size designation number without millimeter. E.g.:-DN 50, DN 300, etc.
In Indian standard IS 1239, the thicknesses of pipes are specifies as:
The medium and heavy pipes are only used for fluid handling. In IS 3589, the thicknesses are specified in actual dimension in mm.
The pipe thickness is designated by Schedule Number and corresponding thickness is specified in the ASME B 36.10 for carbon steel pipes and ASME B 36.19 for stainless steel pipes.
Stainless steel pipes are available in schedule 5S, 10S, 40S and 80S whereas carbon steel pipes are available in schedule 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 ,60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, STD, XS, XXS.
· Thickness standard weight and schedule 40 are identical for nominal pipe size up to 10 inch (250mm) inclusive.
· All larger size of STD has 3/8 inch (9.53mm) wall thickness.
· Extra strong and schedule 80 are identical of nominal pipe size up to 80 inch (200mm) inclusive.
· All larger size of extra strong has ½ inch (12.7mm) wall thickness.
· The thickness of double extra strong is more than schedule 160 in pipe sizes up to 6 inch (150mm) NB.
· This thickness is specified for pipe up to 12 inch (300mm) NB.
· For 12 inch (300mm) NB the thickness matches to that of schedule 120 and for 10 inch (250mm) NB it schedule 140.
Generally the thickness specified by schedule number of B36.10 and B 36.19 matches except in the following:
Based on the material of construction and the pipe to pipe joint, the end specified as:
1. Beveled End: Bevel ends are specified when pipe to pipe and/or fittings joints are done by butt welding.
2. Plain End: Plain ends are specifies where pipe to pipe or fittings joints are done by fillet welding.
3. Screwed End: Screwed joints are specified when pipe to pipe and fittings joints are done by thread connections.
4. Flanged End: Flanged ends are specified to provide bolted connections between pipe to pipes or fittings.
5. Spigot/Socket End: Spigot / Socket ends are specified when lead caulked / cemented joints are provided between pipes and between pipes and fittings.
6. Buttress End: Buttress ends are used in glass piping and are joined by bolting with the use of backing flanges.